Environmental Clearance from the Government is mandatory for certain projects. The Central Government imposed restrictions and prohibitions on the expansion and modernisation of any activity or new projects being undertaken in any part of India unless environmental clearance has been accorded by the Ministry of Environment and Forests (MoEF) or the State Environment Impact Assessment Agency (SEIAA) in accordance with the procedure specified. If the project or activity area is located within 10 kms from the boundary of (i) Protected Areas notified under the Wild Life (Protection) Act, 1972 , or (ii) Critically Polluted areas as notified by the Central Pollution Control Board from time to time, or (iii) Notified Eco-sensitive areas , or (iv) inter-State boundaries and international boundaries, then clearance must be obtained from the MoEF. The said projects which require from the Environmental Clearance are the following:-
1. Mining , extraction of natural resources and power generation (for a specified production capacity)
a. Mining of minerals
b. Offshore and onshore oil and gas exploration, development and production.
c. River Valley projects
d. Thermal Power Projects
e. Nuclear power projects and processing of nuclear fuel.
2. Primary Processing.
a. Coal Washeries
b. Mineral beneficiation
3. Materials Production
a. Metallurgical Industries (ferrous and non-ferrous)
b. Cement Plants
5. Manufacturing/ Fabrication
a. Chemical Fertilisers
b. Pesticide industry and pesticide specific intermediates
c. Petro-chemical complexes
d. Man made fibres manufacturing
e. Petrochemical based processing
f. Synthetic organic chemicals industry
g. Integrated paint industry
h. Pulp and Paper industry
i. Sugar industry
j. Induction/arc furnaces/cupola furnaces 5 TPH or more.
4. Materials Processing
a. Petroleum refining industry
b. Coke oven plants
c. Asbestos milling and asbestos based products
d. Chlor-alkali industry
e. Soda ash industry
f. Leather/skin/hide processing industry
6. Service Sectors
a. Oil and gas transportation pipe line
b. Isolated storage and handling of hazardous chemicals
7. Physical Infrastructure including Environmental Services
a. Air ports
b. Ship breaking yards and units.
c. Industrial estates, parks, complexes, areas and Export Processing Zones, and Special Economic Zones, Bio-tech Parks, Leather complexes.
d. Common hazardous waste treatment , storage and disposal facilities
e. Ports , Harbours, break waters, and dredging
g. Aerial ropeways
h. Common Effluent Treatment Plants
i. Common Municipal Solid Waste Management Facility
8. Building/Construction projects/Area Development Projects and Townships
All projects including expansion and modernisation of existing projects or activities and change in product mix, shall require prior environmental clearance from the MoEF on the recommendation of Expert Appraisal Committee (EAC).